Iconicity Atlas



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Instructions:

  • Please read the instruction and the questions carefully;
  • Abbreviations int., n. add v. stand for interjection, noun and verb respectively;
  • If your language has ideophones, please enter them under interjection, adding (id.) in parentheses;
  • Your answers should NOT be a direct translation of the name of the concept given in the first column – the name of the concept is just an umbrella term for a group of semantically related sound denotations (e.g. under LAUGH are grouped English giggle, guffaw, snigger etc.);
  • More than one answer is possible (e.g. for the concept LAUGH you may enter (int.) ha-ha, ho-ho, (n.) laughter, giggle, snigger etc. separated by commas);
  • It is possible that your language may not contain words for denoting all the listed concepts, or the concepts might not be expressed by certain parts of speech (most probably, there would be no interjection); in this case kindly indicate the absence of a word by dash ‘—’;
  • One word may be suitable for describing several concepts (e.g. English cry is used to denote two concepts – WHEEP and SHOUT);
  • You are most welcome to give your own comments upon usage or origin of the words in the section ‘Comments’.
  • If your language uses an alphabet other than Latin or other writing systems (e.g. hieroglyphs), please provide a transcription. If you have never transcribed your language and/or not sure how to do the transcription, provide only the written form of the word.



N Name of iconic concept Question(s) Answer(s) Comments
91. TREMBLE How do you name an act of shaking involuntarily, as with cold or fear and a sound that may accompany such action?
int.
v.
n.
92. VOMIT How do you name an act of ejecting contents of the stomach through the mouth? A sound that may accompany such action?
int.
v.
n.
93. VROOM How do you imitate a roaring sound made by a motor at high speed? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
94. WEEP How do you imitate a low complaining cry or sound that little children utter as from uneasiness, discontent, or peevishness; also any cry accompanied with tears? How do you name such cry? How do you name the action of producing such cry?
int.
v.
n.
95. WHEEZE How do you imitate a whistling sound a person makes when breathing with difficulty (as when a person has asthma)? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
96. WHISPER How do you name a sound imitating speaking in a soft hushed tone without vibration of the vocal cords? How do you name such manner of speaking?
int.
v.
n.
97. WHISTLE How do you name a high-pitched, warbling sound produced by the forcible expulsion of the breath through a small opening formed by contracting the lips (whistling)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
98. WHOOSH How do you name an act of moving swiftly with a gushing or hissing noise? How do you imitate a swirling or rustling sound accompanying such movement? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
99. YAWN How do you name an act of yawning? How do you imitate it?
int.
v.
n.
100. YELP Write down the sound you utter, when you are hurt (e.g. upon touching a hot kettle). How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.