Iconicity Atlas



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where you grew up / lived the most of your life:
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Instructions:

  • Please read the instruction and the questions carefully;
  • Abbreviations int., n. add v. stand for interjection, noun and verb respectively;
  • If your language has ideophones, please enter them under interjection, adding (id.) in parentheses;
  • Your answers should NOT be a direct translation of the name of the concept given in the first column – the name of the concept is just an umbrella term for a group of semantically related sound denotations (e.g. under LAUGH are grouped English giggle, guffaw, snigger etc.);
  • More than one answer is possible (e.g. for the concept LAUGH you may enter (int.) ha-ha, ho-ho, (n.) laughter, giggle, snigger etc. separated by commas);
  • It is possible that your language may not contain words for denoting all the listed concepts, or the concepts might not be expressed by certain parts of speech (most probably, there would be no interjection); in this case kindly indicate the absence of a word by dash ‘—’;
  • One word may be suitable for describing several concepts (e.g. English cry is used to denote two concepts – WHEEP and SHOUT);
  • You are most welcome to give your own comments upon usage or origin of the words in the section ‘Comments’.
  • If your language uses an alphabet other than Latin or other writing systems (e.g. hieroglyphs), please provide a transcription. If you have never transcribed your language and/or not sure how to do the transcription, provide only the written form of the word.



N Name of iconic concept Question(s) Answer(s) Comments
11. CHIRP How do you imitate a short high-pitched sound uttered by a bird? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
12. CHOKE How do you imitate a sound one produces when having trouble breathing, swallowing, or speaking (especially if something is blocking the windpipe)? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
13. CHOP How do you imitate an abrupt sharp sound produced while cutting something with a blow (e.g. an axe or other sharp tool)? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
14. CLAP How do you imitate and name a sound and the act of striking sharply, especially with the open hand or a flat object or a sound produced when one strikes the palms of one’s hands against one another resoundingly, and repeatedly, especially to express approval?
int.
v.
n.
15. CLASH How do you imitate a loud harsh jarring sound, as of colliding metal objects? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
16. CLICK How do you imitate a short light often metallic sound (e.g. of the latch)? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
17. CLUCK How do you imitate a low clicking sound made by a hen? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
18. COCK-A-DOODLE How do you imitate a crowing of a rooster? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
19. COO How do you imitate a soft murmuring sound (of a pigeon or dove)? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
20. COUGH How do you imitate a harsh noise often involuntarily produced when somebody has a cold by abruptly expelling air from the lungs? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.