Iconicity Atlas



Language (dialect):
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where you grew up / lived the most of your life:
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Instructions:

  • Please read the instruction and the questions carefully;
  • Abbreviations int., n. add v. stand for interjection, noun and verb respectively;
  • If your language has ideophones, please enter them under interjection, adding (id.) in parentheses;
  • Your answers should NOT be a direct translation of the name of the concept given in the first column – the name of the concept is just an umbrella term for a group of semantically related sound denotations (e.g. under LAUGH are grouped English giggle, guffaw, snigger etc.);
  • More than one answer is possible (e.g. for the concept LAUGH you may enter (int.) ha-ha, ho-ho, (n.) laughter, giggle, snigger etc. separated by commas);
  • It is possible that your language may not contain words for denoting all the listed concepts, or the concepts might not be expressed by certain parts of speech (most probably, there would be no interjection); in this case kindly indicate the absence of a word by dash ‘—’;
  • One word may be suitable for describing several concepts (e.g. English cry is used to denote two concepts – WHEEP and SHOUT);
  • You are most welcome to give your own comments upon usage or origin of the words in the section ‘Comments’.
  • If your language uses an alphabet other than Latin or other writing systems (e.g. hieroglyphs), please provide a transcription. If you have never transcribed your language and/or not sure how to do the transcription, provide only the written form of the word.



N Name of iconic concept Question(s) Answer(s) Comments
31. FLUSH How do you imitate a sound of water, such as that of waves on a beach or of a sudden flow or gush? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
32. GAGGLE How do you imitate a gabbling or cackling sound uttered by geese? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
33. GNAW How do you name an act of biting at or nibbling something persistently and sound which accompanies such an act?
int.
v.
n.
34. GOBBLE How do you imitate a loud rapid gurgling sound made by male turkeys? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
35. GROAN Write down the low mournful sound you utter when in pain or grief. How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
36. GROWL How do you imitate a low threatening sound, usually guttural and constrained? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
37. GURGLE How do you imitate a low throaty bubbling noise? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
38. HICCUP How do you imitate a hiccup (a quick, involuntary inhalation that follows a spasm of the diaphragm and is suddenly checked by closure of glottis, producing a short, relatively sharp sound)? How do you name it? How do you name the action of hiccupping?
int.
v.
n.
39. HISS How do you imitate a quiet voiceless fricative sound uttered e.g. by a snake? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
40. HIT How do you imitate a sound produced as a result of dealing a blow? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.