Iconicity Atlas



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Instructions:

  • Please read the instruction and the questions carefully;
  • Abbreviations int., n. add v. stand for interjection, noun and verb respectively;
  • If your language has ideophones, please enter them under interjection, adding (id.) in parentheses;
  • Your answers should NOT be a direct translation of the name of the concept given in the first column – the name of the concept is just an umbrella term for a group of semantically related sound denotations (e.g. under LAUGH are grouped English giggle, guffaw, snigger etc.);
  • More than one answer is possible (e.g. for the concept LAUGH you may enter (int.) ha-ha, ho-ho, (n.) laughter, giggle, snigger etc. separated by commas);
  • It is possible that your language may not contain words for denoting all the listed concepts, or the concepts might not be expressed by certain parts of speech (most probably, there would be no interjection); in this case kindly indicate the absence of a word by dash ‘—’;
  • One word may be suitable for describing several concepts (e.g. English cry is used to denote two concepts – WHEEP and SHOUT);
  • You are most welcome to give your own comments upon usage or origin of the words in the section ‘Comments’.
  • If your language uses an alphabet other than Latin or other writing systems (e.g. hieroglyphs), please provide a transcription. If you have never transcribed your language and/or not sure how to do the transcription, provide only the written form of the word.



N Name of iconic concept Question(s) Answer(s) Comments
61. RATTLE How do you imitate a rapid succession of short, sharp knocking sounds, as of loose pellets colliding when shaken in a container? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
62. RIBBIT How do you imitate a low, hoarse cry of frogs or toads? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
63. RING How do you imitate A clear resonant sound, as a bell when struck? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
64. RIP How do you name an act of cutting or tearing apart in a rough or vigorous manner (e.g. paper or cloth)? How do you name sound(s) accompanying it?
int.
v.
n.
65. ROAR How do you imitate a loud, deep cry or howl, as of an animal (e.g. tiger) or a person? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
66. RUB How do you name an act of moving one's hand or a cloth repeatedly back and forth on the surface of sth. with firm pressure; and a sound accompanying such action?
int.
v.
n.
67. RUMBLE How do you imitate a deep continuous resonant sound of a person's stomach due to hunger? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
68. RUSTLE How do you imitate a low crisp whispering or rubbing sound, as of dry leaves or paper? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
69. SCRATCH How do you imitate a rasping or grating noise made by scraping something, often on a hard surface? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.
70. SCREAM How do you imitate a loud, sharp, and piercing cry (often of a terrified person) or any loud, shrill high-pitched noise? How do you name such sound(s)? How do you name the action of producing such sound(s)?
int.
v.
n.